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50 item MS practice test with Answers and Rationale

Mr. Duffy is admitted to the CCU with a diagnosis of R/O MI. He presented in the ER with a typical description of pain associated with an MI, and is now cold and clammy, pale and dyspneic. He has an IV of D5W running, and is complaining of chest pain. Oxygen therapy has not been started, and he is not on the monitor. He is frightened.

1. The nurse is aware of several important tasks that should all be done immediately in order to give Mr. Duffy the care he needs. Which of the following nursing interventions will relieve his current myocardial ischemia?

a. stool softeners, rest
b. O2 therapy, analgesia
c. Reassurance, cardiac monitoring
d. Adequate fluid intake, low-fat diet

All the nursing interventions listed are important in the care of Mr. Duffy. However relief of his pain will be best achieved by increasing the O2 content of the blood to his heart, and relieving the spasm of coronary vessels.

2. During the first three days that Mr. Duffy is in the CCU, a number of diagnostic blood tests are obtained. Which of the following patterns of cardiac enzyme elevation are most common following an MI?

a. SGOT, CK, and LDH are all elevated immediately.
b. SGOT rises 4-6 hours after infarction with CK and LDH rising slowly 24 hours later.
c. CK peaks first (12-24 hours), followed by the SGOT (peaks in 24-36 hours) and then the LDH (peaks 3-4 days).
d. CK peaks first and remains elevated for 1 to 2 weeks.

Although the timing of initial elevation, peak elevation, and duration of elevation vary with sources, current literature favors option letter c.

3. On his second day in CCU Mr. Duffy suffers a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Considering his diagnosis, which is the most probable arrhythmia?

a. atrial tachycardia
b. ventricular fibrillation
c. atrial fibrillation
d. heart block

Ventricular irritability is common in the early post-MI period, which predisposes the client to ventricular arrhythmias. Heart block and atrial arrhythmias may also be seen post-MI but ventricular arrhythmias are more common.

4. Mr. Duffy is placed on digitalis on discharge from the hospital. The nurse planning with him for his discharge should educate him as to the purpose and actions of his new medication. What should she or he teach Mr. Duffy to do at home to monitor his reaction to this medication?

a. take his blood pressure
b. take his radial pulse for one minute
c. check his serum potassium (K) level
d. weigh himself everyday

All options have some validity. However, option B relates best to the action of digitalis. If the pulse rate drops below 60 or is markedly irregular, the digitalis should be held and the physician consulted. Serum potassium levles should be monitored periodically in clients on digitalis and diuretics, as potassium balance is essential for prevention of arrhythmias. However the client cannot do this at home. Daily weights may make the client alert to fluid accumulation, an early sign of CHF. Blood pressure measurement is also helpful; providing the client has the right size cuff and he or she and/or significant other understand the technique and can interpret the results meaningfully.

You are speaking to an elderly group of diabetics in the OPD about eye health and the importance of visits to the ophthalmologist.

5. You decide to discuss glaucoma prevention. Which of the following diagnostic tests should these clients request from their care provider?

a. fluorescein stain
b. snellen’s test
c. tonometry
d. slit lamp

Option A is most often used to detect corneal lesions; B is a test for visual acuity using snellen’s chart; D is used to focus on layers of the cornea and lens looking for opacities and inflammation.

6. You also explain common eye changes associated with aging. One of these is presbyopia, which is:

a. Refractive error that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina.
b. Poor distant vision
c. Poor near vision
d. A gradual lessening of the power of accommodation

Option A defines astigmatism, B is myopia, and C is hyperopia

7. Some of the diabetic clients are interested in understanding what is visualized during funduscopic examination. During your discussion you describe the macular area as:

a. Head of the optic nerve, seen on the nasal side of the field, lighter in color than the retina.
b. The area of central vision, seen on the temporal side of the optic disc, which is quite avascular.
c. Area where the central retinal artery and vein appear on the retina.
d. Reddish orange in color, sometimes stippled.

Options A and C refer to the optic disc, D describes the color of the retina.

8. One of the clients has noted a raised yellow plaque on the nasal side of the conjunctiva. You explain that this is called:

a. a pinguecula, which is normal slightly raised fatty structure under the conjunctiva that may gradually increase with age.
b. Icterus, which may be due to liver disease.
c. A pterygium, which will interfere with vision.
d. Ciliary flush caused by congestion of the ciliary artery.

Correct by definition.

You are caring for Mr. Kaplan who has chronic renal failure (uremia)

9. You know that all but one of the following may eventually result in uremia. Which option is not implicated?

a. glomerular disease
b. uncontrolled hypertension
c. renal disease secondary to drugs, toxins, infections, or radiations
d. all of the above

Options A, B and C are potential causes of renal damage and eventual renal failure. Individuals can live very well with only one healthy kidney.

10. You did the initial assessment on Mr. Kaplan when he came to your unit. What classical signs and symptoms did you note?

a. fruity- smelling breath.
b. Weakness, anorexia, pruritus
c. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
d. Ruddy complexion

Weakness and anorexia are due to progressive renal damage; pruritus is secondary to presence of urea in the perspiration. Fruity smelling breath is found in diabetic ketoacidosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia are signs of DM and early diabetic ketoacidosis. Oliguria is seen in chronic renal failure. The skin is more sallow or brown as renal failure continues.

11. Numerous drugs have been used on Mr. Kaplan in an attempt to stabilize him. Regarding his diagnosis and management of his drugs, you know that:

a. The half-life of many drugs is decreased in uremia; thus dosage may have to be increased to be effective.
b. Drug toxicity is a major concern in uremia; individualization of therapy and often a decrease in dose is essential.
c. Drug therapy is not usually affected by this diagnosis
d. Precautions should be taken with prescription drugs, but most OTC medications are safe for him to use.

Metabolic changes and alterations in excretion put the client with uremia at risk for development of toxicity to any drug. Thus alteration in drug schedule and dosage is necessary for safe care.

You are assigned to cardiac clinic to fill in for a colleague for 3 weeks. You begin by reviewing assessment of the cardiovascular system in your mind and asking yourself the following:

12. The point of maximum impulse (PMI) is an important landmark in the cardiac exam. Which statement best describes the location of the PMI in the healthy adult?

a. Base of the heart, 5th intercostal space, 7-9 cm to the left of the midsternal line.
b. Base of the heart, 7th intercostal space, 7-9 cm to the left of the midsternal line.
c. Apex of the heart, intercostal space, 7-9 cm to the left of the midsternal line.
d. Apex of the heart, intercostal space, 7-9 cm to the left of the midsternal line.

The PMI is the impulse at the apex of the heart caused by the beginning of ventricular systole. It is generally located in the 5th left ICS, 7-9 cm from the MSL or at, or just medial to, the MCL.

13. During the physical examination of the well adult client, the health care provider auscultates the heart. When the stethoscope is placed on the 5th intercostal space along the left sternal border, which valve closure is best evaluated?

a. Tricuspid
b. Pulmonic
c. Aortic
d. Mitral

The sound created by closure of the tricuspid valve is heard at the 5th LICS at the LSB. Pulmonic closure is best heard at the 2nd LICS, LSB. Aortic closure is best heard at the 2nd RICS, RSB. Mitral valve closure is best heard at the PMI landmark (apex)

14. The pulmonic component of which heart sound is best heard at the 2nd LICS at the LSB?

a. S1
b. S2
c. S3
d. S4

S1 is caused by mitral and tricuspid valve closure, S2 is caused by the aortic and pulmonic valve closure; S3 and S4 are generally considered abnormal heat sounds in adults and are best heard at the apex.

15. The coronary arteries furnish blood supply to the myocardium. Which of the following is a true statement relative to the coronary circulation?

a. the right and left coronary arteries are the first of many branches off the ascending aorta
b. blood enters the right and left coronary arteries during systole only
c. the right coronary artery forms almost a complete circle around the heart, yet supplies only the right ventricle
d. the left coronary artery has two main branches, the left anterior descending and left circumflex: both supply the left ventricle

The right and left coronary arteries are the only branches off the ascending aorta; blood enters these arteries mainly during diastole; the right coronary artery also often supplies a small portion of the left ventricle.

Sally Baker, a 40-year-old woman, is admitted to the hospital with an established diagnosis of mitral stenosis. She is scheduled for surgery to repair her mitral valve.

16. Ms. Baker has decided to have surgical correction of her stenosed valve at this time because her subjective complaints of dyspnea, hemoptysis, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea have become unmanageable. These complaints are probably due to:

a. thickening of the pericardium
b. right heart failure
c. pulmonary hypertension
d. left ventricular hypertrophy

Pulmonary congestion secondary to left atrial hypertrophy causes these symptoms. The left ventricle does not hypertrophy in mitral stenosis; right heart failure would cause abdominal discomfort and peripheral edema; pericardial thickening does not occur.

17. On physical exam of Ms. Baker, several abnormal findings can be observed. Which of the following is not one of the usual objective findings associated with mitral stenosis?

a. low-pitched rumbling diastolic murmur, precordial thrill, and parasternal lift
b. small crepitant rales at the bases of the lungs
c. weak, irregular pulse, and peripheral and facial cyanosis in severe disease
d. chest x-ray shows left ventricular hypertrophy

Evidence of left atrial enlargement may be seen on chest x-ray and ECG. The other objective findings may be seen in chronic mitral stenosis with episodes of atrial fibrillation and right heart failure.

18. You are seeing more clients with diagnoses of mitral valve prolapse. You know those mitral valve prolapse is usually a benign cardiac condition, but may be associated with atypical chest pain. This chest pain is probably caused by:

a. ventricular ischemia
b. dysfunction of the left ventricle
c. papillary muscle ischemia and dysfunction
d. cardiac arrythmias

Ventricular ischemia does not occur with prolapsed mitral valve; options B and D are not painful conditions in themselves.

Mr. Oliver, a long term heavy smoker, is admitted to the hospital for a diagnostic workup. His possible diagnosis is cancer of the lung.

19. The most common lethal cancer in males between their fifth and seventh decades is:

a. cancer of the prostate
b. cancer of the lung
c. cancer of the pancreas
d. cancer of the bowel

The incidence of lung cancer is also rapidly rising in women.

20. Of the four basic cell types of lung cancer listed below, which is always associated with smoking?

a. adenocarcinoma
b. squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid)
c. undifferenciated carcinoma
d. bronchoalveolar carcinoma

Textbooks of medicine and nursing classify primary pulmonary carcinoma somewhat differently. However most agree that sqaumous cell or epidermoid carcinoma is always associated with cigarette smoking.

21. Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery in the treatment of lung cancer. Special nursing considerations with chemotherapy include all but which of the following?

a. Helping the client deal with depression secondary to the diagnosis and its treatment
b. Explaining that the reactions to chemotherapy are minimal
c. Careful observation of the IV site of the administration of the drugs
d. Careful attention to blood count results

There ar enumerous severe reactions to chemotherapy such as stomatitis, alopecia, bone marrow depression, nausea and vomiting. Options A, B and D are important nursing considerations.

22. Which of the following operative procedures of the thorax is paired with the correct definition?

a. Pneumonectomy: removal of the entire lung
b. Wedge resection: removal of one or more lobes of a lung
c. Decortication: removal of the reibs or sections of ribs
d. Thoracoplasty: removal of fibrous membrane that develops over visceral pleura as a result of emphysema

Wedge resection is removal of part of a segment of the lung; decortication is the removal of a fibrous membrane that develops over the visceral pleura; and thoracoplasty is the removal of ribs or sections of ribs.

Mr. Liberatore, age 76, is admitted to your unit. He has a past medical history of hypertension, DM, hyperlipidemia. Recently he has had several episodes where he stops talking in midsentence and stares into space. Today the episode lasted for 15 minutes. The admission diagnosis is impending CVA.

23. The episodes Mr. Liberatore has been experiencing are probably:

a. small cerebral hemorrhages
b. TIA’s or transient ischemic attacks
c. Secondary to hypoglycemia
d. Secondary to hyperglycemia

A TIA is a temporary reduction in blood flow to the brain, manifesting itself in symptoms like those Mr. Liberatore experiences. Although hypo- and hyperglycemia can cause some drowsiness and/or disorientation, the episodes Mr. Liberatore experiences fit the pattern of TIA because of his quick recovery with no sequelae and no treatment.

24. Mr. Liberatore suffers a left sided CVA. He is right handed. The nurse should expect:

a. left-sided paralysis
b. visual loss
c. no alterations in speech
d. no impairment of bladder function

Visual field loss is a common side effect of CVA. In right-handed persons the speech center (Broca’s area) is most commonly in the left brain; because of the crossover of the motor fibers, a CVA in the left brain will produce a right-sided hemiplegia. Thus, Mr. Liberatore will probably have some speech disturbance and right-sided paralysis. Often bladder control is diminished following CVA.

25. Upper motor neuron disease may be manifested in which of the following clinical signs?

a. spastic paralysis, hyperreflexia, presence of babinski reflex
b. flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia
c. muscle atrophy, fasciculations
d. decreased or absent voluntary movement

Options B, C and D describe lower motor neuron disease.

Julie, an 18-year-old girl, is brought into the ER by her mother with the chief complaint of sudden visual disturbance that began half an hour ago and was described as double vision and flashing lights.

26. During your assessment of Julie she tells you all visual symptoms are gone but that she now has a severe pounding headache over her left eye. You suspect Julie may have:

a. a tension headache
b. the aura and headache of migraine
c. a brain tumor
d. a conversion reaction

The warning sign or aura is associated with migraine although not everyone with migrane has an aura. Migraine is usually unilateral and described as pounding. Julie’s symptoms are most compatible with migraine.

27. You explain to Julie and her mother that migraine headaches are caused by:

a. an allergic response triggered by stress
b. dilation of cerebral arteries
c. persistent contraction of the muscles of the head, neck and face
d. increased intracranial pressure

The vascular theory best explains migraine and often diagnosis is confirmed through a trial of ergotamine, which constricts the dilated, pulsating vesels.

28. A thorough history reveals that hormonal changes associated with menstruation may have triggered Julie’s migraine attack. In investigating Julie’s history what factors would be least significant in migraine?

a. seasonal allergies
b. trigger foods such as alcohol, MSG, chocolate
c. family history of migraine
d. warning sign of onset, or aura

Sinus headache often accompanies seasonal allergies. Many factors may contribute to migraine. Usually the client comes from a family that has migrated, which may have been called “sick headache” due to accompanying nausea and vomiting. Often there is an aura. Stress, diet, hormonal changes, and fatigue may all be implicated in migraine.

29. A client with muscle contraction headache will exhibit a pattern different for Julie’s. Which of the following is more compatible with tension headache?

a. severe aching pain behind both eyes
b. headache worse when bending over
c. a bandlike burning around the neck
d. feeling of tightness bitemporally, occipitally, or in the neck

Options A and B describe sinus headache; option A may also be compatible with headache secondary to eyestrain; option B is also compatible with migraine; option C would be correct if stated a bandlike “tightness” around the head instead of “burning”

Mr. Snyder is admitted to your unit with a brain tumor. The type of tumor he has is currently unknown. You begin to think about the way brain tumors are classified.

30. Glioma is an intracranial tumor. Which of the following statements about gliomas do you know to be false?

a. 50% of all intracranial tumors are gliomas
b. gliomas are usually benign
c. they grow rapidly and often cannot be totally excised from the surrounding tissue
d. most glioma victims die within a year after diagnosis

Gliomas are malignant tumors.

31. Acoustic neuromas produce symptoms of progressive nerve deafness, tinnitus, and vertigo due to pressure and eventual destruction of:

a. CN5
b. CN7
c. CN8
d. The ossicles

CN8, the acoustic nerve or vestibulocochlear nerve, is the most commonly affected CN in acoustic neuroma although as the tumor progresses CN5 and CN7 can be affected.

32. Whether Mr Snyder’s tumor is benign or malignant, it will eventually cause increased intracranial pressure. Signs and symptoms of increasing intracranial pressure may include all of the following except:

a. headache, nausea, and vomiting
b. papilledema, dizziness, mental status changes

c. obvious motor deficits
d. increased pulse rate, drop in blood pressure

As ICP increases, the pulse rate decreases and the BP rise. However, as ICP continues to rise, vital signs may vary considerably.

33. Mr Snyder is scheduled for surgery in the morning, and you are surprised to find out that there is no order for an enema. You assess the situation and conclude that the reason for this is:

a. Mr. Snyder has had some mental changes due to the tumor and would find an enema terribly traumatic
b. Straining to evacuate the enema might increase the intracranial pressure
c. Mr. Snyder had been on clear liquids and then was NPO for several days, so an enema is not necessary
d. An oversight and you call the physician to obtain the order

Any activity that increases ICP could possibly cause brain herniation. Straining to expel an enema is one example of how the increased ICP can be further aggravated.

34. Postoperatively Mr. Snyder needs vigilant nursing care including all of the following except:

a. Keeping his head flat
b. Assessments q ½ hour of LOC, VS, papillary responses, and mental status
c. Helping him avoid straining at stool, vomiting, or coughing
d. Providing a caring, supportive atmosphere for him and his family

Postoperatively clients who have undergone craniotomy usually have their heads elevated to decrease local edema and also decrease ICP.

35. Potential postintracranial surgery problems include all but which of the following?

a. increased ICP
b. extracranial hemorrhage
c. seizures
d. leakage of cerebrospinal fluid

Hemorrhage is predominantly intracranial, although there may be some bloody drainage on external dressings. Increased ICP may result from hemorrhage or edema. CSF leakage may result in meningitis. Seizures are another postoperative concern.

Mrs. Hogan, a 43-year-old woman, is admitted to your unit for cholecystectomy.

36. You are responsible for teaching Mrs. Hogan deep breathing and coughing exercises. Why are these exercises especially important for Mrs. Hogan?

a. they prevent postoperative atelectasis and pneumonia
b. the incision in gallbladder surgery is in the subcostal area, which makes the client reluctant to take a deep breath and cough
c. because she is probably overweight and will be less willing to breathe, cough, and move postoperatively

Option A is true: the rationale for deep breathing and coughing is to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications such as pneumonia and atelectasis. However, the risk of pulmonary problems is somewhat increased in clients with biliary tract surgery because of their high abdominal incisions. Option C assumes the stereotype of the person with gallbladder disease – fair, fat and fory – which is not necessarily the case. Splinting the incision with the hands or a pillow is very helpful in controlling the pain during coughing.

37. On the morning of Mrs. Hogan’s planned cholecystectomy she awakens with a pain in her right scapular area and thinks she slept in poor position. While doing the preop check list you note that on her routine CB report her WBC is 15,000. Your responsibility at this point is:

a. to notify the surgeon at once; this is an elevated WBC indicating an inflammatory reaction
b. to record this finding in a prominent place on the preop checklist and in your preop notes
c. to call the laboratory for a STAT repeat WBC
d. none. This is not an unusual finding

A WBC count of 15,000 probably indicates acute cholecystitis, especially considering Mrs. Hogan’s new pain. The surgeon should be called as he/she may treat the acute attack medically and delay the surgery for several days, weeks, or months.

38. Mrs. Hogan is scheduled for surgery 2 days later and is to be given atropine 0.3 mg IM and Demerol 50 mg IM one hour preoperatively. Which nursing actions follow the giving of the preop medication?

a. have her void soon after receiving the medication
b. allow her family to be with her before the medication takes effect
c. bring her valuables to the nursing station
d. reinforce preop teaching

Options A, C and D should all take place prior to administration of the drugs. The family may also be involved earlier but certainly should have that time immediately after the medication is given and before it takes full effect to be with their loved ones. Good planning of nursing care can facilitate this.

39. Mrs. Hogan is transported to the recovery room following her cholecystectomy. As you continue to check her vital signs you note a continuing trend in Mrs. Hogan’s status: her BP is gradually dropping and her pulse rate is increasing. Your most appropriate nursing action is to:

a. order whole blood for Mrs. Hogan from the lab
b. increase IV fluid rate of infusion and place in trendelenburg position
c. immediately report signs of shock to the head nurse and/or surgeon and monitor VS closely
d. place in lateral sims position to facilitate breathing

These are signs of impending shock, which may be true shock or a reaction to anesthesia. Your most appropriate action is to report your findings quickly and accurately and to continue to monitor Mrs. Hogan carefully.

40. Mrs. Hogan returns to your clinical unit following discharge from the recovery room. Her vital signs are stable and her family is with her. Postoperative leg exercises should be inititated:

a. after the physician writes the order
b. after the family leaves
c. if Mrs. Hogan will not be ambulated early
d. stat

Leg exercises, deep breathing and coughing, moving, and turning should begin as soon as the client’s condition is stable. The family can be extremely helpful in encouraging the client to do them, in supporting the incision, etc. a doctor’s oreder is not necessary – this is a nursing responsibility.

41. An oropharyngeal airway may:

a. Not be used in a conscious patient.
b. Cause airway obstruction.
c. Prevent a patient from biting and occluding an ET tube.
d. Be inserted "upside down" into the mouth opening and then rotated into the proper orientation as it is advanced into the mouth.
e. All of the above.

An oropharyngeal airway should be used in an unconscious patient. In a conscious or semiconscious patient its use may cause laryngospasm or vomiting. An oropharyngeal airway that is too long may push the epiglottis into a position that obstructs the airway. It is often use with an ETT to prevent biting and occlusion. It is usually inserted upside down and then rotated into the correct orientation as it approaches full insertion.

42. Endotracheal intubation:

a. Can be attempted for up to 2 minutes before you need to stop and ventilate the patient.
b. Reduces the risk of aspiration of gastric contents.
c. Should be performed with the neck flexed forward making the chin touch the chest.
d. Should be performed after a patient is found to be not breathing and two breaths have been given but before checking for a pulse.

Letter A is wrong because an attempt should not last no longer than 30 seconds. Unless injury is suspected the neck should be slightly flexed and the head extended.. the ‘sniffing position’. After securing an airway and successfully ventilating the patient with two breaths you should then check for a pulse. If there is no pulse begin chest compressions. Intubation is part of the secondary survey ABC’s.

43. When giving bag-valve mask ventilations:

a. Rapid and forceful ventilations are desirable so that adequate ventilation will be assured
b. Effective ventilations can always be given by one person.
c. Cricoid pressure may prevent gastric inflation during ventilations.
d. Tidal volumes will always be larger than when giving mouth to pocket mask ventilations.

Cricoid pressure may prevent gastric inflation during ventilations and may also prevent regurgitation by compressing the esophagus. Letter A may cause gastric insufflation thus increasing the risk for regurgitation and aspiration. With adults breaths should be delivered slowly and steadily over 2 seconds. Effective ventilation using bag-valve mask usually requires at least two well trained rescuers. A frequent problem with bag-valve mask ventilations is the inability to provide adequate tidal volumes.

44. If breath sounds are only heard on the right side after intubation:

a. Extubate, ventilate for 30 seconds then try again.
b. The patient probably only has one lung, the right.
c. You have intubated the stomach.
d. Pull the tube back and listen again.

Most likely you have a right main stem bronchus intubation. Pulling the tube back a few centimeters may be all you need to do.

45. An esophageal obturator airway (EOA):

a. Can be inserted by any person trained in ACLS.
b. Requires visualization of the trachea before insertion.
c. Never causes regurgitation.
d. Should not be used with a conscious person, pediatric patients, or patients who have swallowed caustic substances.

EOA insertion should only be attempted by persons highly proficient in their use. Moreover, since visualization is not required the EOA may be very useful in patient’s when intubation is contraindicated or not possible. Vomiting and aspiration are possible complications of insertion and removal of an EOA.

46. During an acute myocardial infarct (MI):

a. A patient may have a normal appearing ECG.
b. Chest pain will always be present.
c. A targeted history is rarely useful in making the diagnosis of MI.
d. The chest pain is rarely described as crushing, pressing, or heavy.

Which is why a normal ECG alone cannot be relied upon to rule out an MI. Chest pain does not always accompany an MI. This is especially true of patients with diabetes. A targeted history is often crucial in making the diagnosis of acute MI. The chest pain associated with an acute MI is often described as heavy, crushing pressure, 'like an elephant sitting on my chest.'

47. The most common lethal arrhythmia in the first hour of an MI is:

a. Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia
b. Asystole
c. Ventricular fibrillation
d. First degree heart block.

Moreover, ventricular fibrillation is 15 times more likely to occur during the first hour of an acute MI than the following twelve hours which is why it is vital to decrease the delay between onset of chest pain and arrival at a medical facility. First degree heart block is not a lethal arrhythmia.

48. Which of the following is true about verapamil?

a. It is used for wide-complex tachycardia.
b. It may cause a drop in blood pressure.
c. It is a first line drug for Pulseless Electrical Activity.
d. It is useful for treatment of severe hypotension.

Verapamil usually decreases blood pressure, which is why it is sometimes used as an antihypertensive agent. Verapamil may be lethal if given to a patient with V-tach, therefore it should not be given to a tachycardic patient with a wide complex QRS. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker and may actually cause PEA if given too fast intravenously or if given in excessive amounts. The specific antidote for overdose from verapamil, or any other calcium channel blocker, is calcium. Verapamil may cause hypotension.

49. Atropine:

a. Is always given for a heart rate less than 60 bpm.
b. Cannot be given via ET tube.
c. Has a maximum total dosage of 0.03-0.04 mg/kg IV in the setting of cardiac arrest.
d. When given IV, should always be given slowly.

Only give atropine for symptomatic bradycardias. Many physically fit people have resting heart rates less than 60 bpm. Atropine may be given via an endotracheal tube. Administering atropine slowly may cause paradoxical bradycardia.

50. Asystole should not be "defibrillated."

a. True
b. False

Asystole is not amenable to correction by defibrillation. But there is a school of thought that holds that asystole should be treated like V-fib, i.e... defibrillate it. The thinking is that human error or equipment malfunction may result in misidentifying V-fib as asystole. Missing V-fib can have deadly consequences for the patient because V-fib is highly amenable to correction by defibrillation.

* it's better late than never... he he *

what is reference of this?

Hi Robis,

Just want to confirm your answer in quwstion no. 1. As I understand, answer is A because the child is already having the seizure. Answer B is after the episode of seizure.

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